Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College is one of the few Medical College in Bangladesh where postgraduate courses are also run along with the graduation courses. The postgraduate courses at this college are- MD, MS, M-Phil, MPH and Diploma Courses.
All postgraduate courses are run under the direct control of BSMMU. Institutions like Chittagong Medical College act as the affiliate bodies to BSMMU to admit students and conduct these courses. Examinations are conducted nationally by BSMMU after the completion of the courses in July each year.

The diploma courses are of one year duration. Medical graduates of at least two years studying and with requisite training in the relevant fields are eligible to apply for admission. Teaching and training are imparted in individual departments according to the respective curriculum. However, the basic Science teachers of the college give the basic science part of the lectures.

Besides conducting postgraduate courses, the Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College and hospital also imparts training which are recognized by the postgraduate institutions of home and abroad.